Read China's Examination Hell The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China E-pub Author Ichisada Miyazaki

Ichisada Miyazaki µ 4 Free read

China's Examination Hell The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China

Written by one of the foremost historians of Chinese institutions this book focuses on China’s civil service examination system in its final and most elaborate phase during the Ch’ing dynasty All aspects of this labyrinthine system are ex. A description of one of the most important and toughest examination systems in world history the examinations for the Chinese imperial civil service These examinations were in place for about 1400 years and molded and selected the men who ran what was often the most powerful though isolated nation on earth Women could not take the examsFor most of this time the only way an ambitious man could have a successful career was to pass the civil service exam join the government and be appointed a high mandarin where he could let his fingernails grow long There was almost no other way to hit the really big time Only about one out of each 3000 men reached the top of the exam system so the competition as the title of the book implies was hellishThe exams were based on the teachings of Confucius and reuired a thorough knowledge of Confucian literature the ability to write graceful essays on topics of Confucian teaching and the ability to write good poetry all the while exhibiting beautiful calligraphy Nothing about practical knowledge such as agriculture business engineering or military mattersThe first step in making it through the exam system was to be born in a well to do family The exams were open to most men but the years of study tutors and various incidental expenses made it impossible for the average man to take the examsBoys between the ages of eight and fifteen who were preparing for the exams spent most of their time studying no time for playing On top of learning the Chinese writing system in and out reuired of course they needed to pretty well memorize about 400000 words that were in the Confucian classics The Bible has about 800000 wordsAfter this colossal amount of study you would take a first exam with a pass rate of about 50% to ualify you for the real exams If you made it through the ualifying exam even if you didn t get any farther you got a modest prize a title and some prestige that could help you along somewhat in life It was after all uite an achievement to just ualifyThe next exam was the provincial exam which was a lot serious with a pass rate of about one in a hundred This exam was given once every three years Men could take it over and over again and some men continued until they were 60 or 70 years old when they might get an honorary pass but no jobThe provincial examination was uite an ordeal It was given to 10000 to 20000 men at once in a dilapidated compound a prison without bars The candidates were locked in for three days and two nights Each candidate schlepped in his writing materials bedding food a curtain for his cell and a cooking potBecause of the intense pressure and the strange surroundings some of the men came unhinged and began to hallucinate Or as the people of that time knew the candidates past misdeeds caught up with them The book has some good ghost stories In a typical story in the past a candidate seduced a girl who had to commit suicide The King of the Dead sent the girl s ghost to haunt the candidate during the exam right at the most crucial period in his life He definitely would be thrown off his game and might even hang himselfThe King of Heaven however might make sure that a man who had good deeds in the bank would get a high passMen who passed a provincial exam could then go on to a similar exam in the capital with a pass rate of about one in 30 It was an enormous honor to pass this exam the Emperor would congratulate you in person and uite likely give you a jobThe candidates had a tough time but the examiners were also put through the wringer How do you grade 20000 exam papers with essays and poems fairly And what about catching cheaters After years of training in Confucian ethics you would think the candidates would all be honest but this wasn t true There were clever ways to cheat and the examiners had to go to great and expensive lengths to prevent itThe author of China s Examination Hell also considers the uestion of what good the examination system was He points out that for most of China s history there was a stable government and civilians ruled the country avoiding the problems that come with military dictatorshipsIn the author s opinion the examination system was ahead of its time when it started but by the 19th century it was behind the time with disastrous results The mandarins chosen by the exams were stodgy and out of touch untrained in anything practical and were unable to modernize and protect the country against the sea devils from the West The system had a good run but in 1904 it was finally junked and it was high time

Read China's Examination Hell The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China

N a wide range of sources including Chinese novels short stories and plays this thought provoking and entertaining book brings to vivid life the testing structure that supplied China’s government bureaucracy for almost fourteen hundred year. Lo sapevate che in principio il mondo occidentale e soprattutto l Europa non prevedevano esami per l assegnazione delle cariche di stato NoAllora leggendo uesto libro potrete identificare il colpevole delle nostre sofferenze Nella Cina imperiale in seguito a complotti per il potere dove concubine eunuchi e funzionari facevano di tutto per spodestare l imperatore o usarlo come burattino per i propri interessi George RR Martin ne sai ualcosa vero venne ideato un sistema di esami di stato aperto a tutti ricchi poveri belli e brutti per far modo che a corte ci fossero persone realmente meritevoli del loro incaricoIl problema di uesto sistema era che gli esami erano di una difficolt tale per cui i pochi eletti che riuscivano ad arrivare a uello decisivo che consisteva in una clausura di un giorno ed una notte per ogni prova sia chiaro spesso avevano delle visioni dove fantasmi di persone relative alla loro vita gli facevano rivelazioniVerit o leggenda che sia si pu capire il livello di stress a cui erano sottoposti i candidatiIn caso di fallimento molti esaminati non tornavano neanche a casa per il disonoreErano esami dove bisognava portare vari libri a memoria e forse un po da uesta storia che nasce lo stereotipo dell asiatico che prende sempre il massimo dei votiIl resto viene spiegato dettagliatamente forse anche un po troppo in uesto libro

Read & Download Ç PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Ichisada Miyazaki

Plored the types of uestions the style and form in which they were to be answered the problem of cheating and the psychological and financial burdens of the candidates the rewards of the successful and the plight of those who failed Drawing o. Both concise and comprehensive I was interested in reading about these after Chinese civil servants seemed to appear in every book I read about China Platt s Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom Lovell s Opium War Kuhn s Soulstealers and even in The Penguin History of the World The exams are described in detail which naturally drew me to compare them to American standardized tests and citizenship tests Most entertaining are the ghost stories apparently the examination centers were a common setting for China s ghost stories including those by Lu Xun many of which contained a moral fable For ghost stories set in bureaucracies see David Foster Wallace s The Pale King


6 thoughts on “China's Examination Hell The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China

  1. says:

    A description of one of the most important and toughest examination systems in world history – the examinations for the Chinese imperial civil service These examinations were in place for about 1400 years and molded and

  2. says:

    Both concise and comprehensive I was interested in reading about these after Chinese civil servants seemed to appear in every book I read about

  3. says:

    Lo sapevate che in principio il mondo occidentale e soprattutto l'Europa non prevedevano esami per l'assegnazione delle cariche di stato? No?Allora leggendo uesto libro potrete identificare il colpevole delle nostre sofferenze Nella Cina imperiale in seguito a complotti per il potere dove concubine eunuchi e funzionari facevano di tutto per spodestare l'imperatore o usarlo come burattino per i propri interessi George RR Martin ne sai ualcos

  4. says:

    Hochinteressante informative EinführungWer sich näher mit chinesischer Literatur und Geschichte auseinandersetzt stößt schnell auf das Thema der Prüfungskultur Wer etwas werden wollte in China sei es in der Tang oder der ing Dynastie musste sich durch die teilweise unglaublichen Strapazen dieses Prüfungswesens arb

  5. says:

    Extremely interesting read about how the Chinese gained office through the testing services

  6. says:

    Clear concise Chinese history

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *